Metaphysics of classical space and time

Department of Physical Electronics, Russian State Pedagogical University, St.Petersburg, RCC”Energy”, Russia

Stanislav Konstantinov



In the article suggests the conclusion  of classical space-time of the real physical laws discovered by Johannes Kepler in the analysis of long-term astronomical observations of Tycho Brahe. Rather than lay a priori given space-time at all the theoretical constructs are invited to rely on the real physical picture of the world, as set out in Metaphysics I. Kepler and will be further developed in the works of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Arthur Eddington. The article argues that the agenda set by modern fundamental theoretical physics problem of withdrawal of the classical space-time representations of the concepts and laws of physics of the microscopic physics, first tried to constructively implement A.Eddington in his latest work Fundamental theory. The article deals with the boundary conditions for Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Einstein’s equations are invariant and are applicable only to describe the reversible processes in equilibrium systems. The fundamental error in Einstein’s general relativity is to deny the existence of the interaction and the exchange of energy between the system and the environment (ether) and, consequently, a violation of the law of conservation of energy. In a stable equilibrium condition, an active influence from the outside on the system is negligible, but it can become of major importance when the system goes into a non-equilibrium irreversible condition. Herewith, the system becomes non-integrable, the time loses its invariance and its behaviour is probabilistic in nature.  Irreversible processes cannot be adequately described by a contemporary of traditional physics, which denies the impact on the environment system (ether), so the concept of nuclear security, which was adopted without taking into account this fact, can lead to disaster in the event of emergencies (Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant and The Chernobyl nuclear power plant).


Fiber space, the base layer, imaginary time (cyclic, invariant), cosmological time (evolutionary probabilistic), the time horizon, the inertial mass, gravitational mass, vector potential, magnetic field vector, scalar magnetic field, bias currents.

  1. 1. Introduction

The problem of deriving classical space-time from the laws of microscopic physics now is one of the urgent problems of theoretical physics. It is closely connected with the physical essence of the cosmic medium  (ether), which determines the properties and the geometry of space-time. It would be wrong to assert that the appeal to metaphysics as the first philosophy (ή πρώτη φιλοσοφία) takes as its subject the unknowable essence of the cosmic medium. On the contrary, the experimental cosmological discoveries of recent years, including the presence of thermal background radiation of the universe of 2.7 K, its anisotropic distribution in space, the cosmological expansion of the universe to the acceleration and the rapid development of the theory of continuous superfluid medium allows to describe the universe, as the world is physically installed and clear interactions. In view of the above I would like to explain the concept of physically substantiated classical space – time, built on the basis of the laws of celestial mechanics and models of the space environment, fundamentally different from the standard cosmological model ΛCDM (Λ- Cold Dark Matter).

Professor of Moscow State University Yu.S.Vladimirov in his article [1] considered three directions of finding a solution to this problem:  Penrose’s twistor program, A.P. Yefremov’s quaternionic program  and Yu.S.Vladimirov’s binary geometrophysics. But there is a fourth direction to solve this problem – it is Arthur Eddington’s Fundamental theory [2]. The essence of this direction is described in the article Five-dimensional world of Kepler – Newton – Eddington,  published in the book «Cosmic Medium» [3]. It A.Eddington in his latest work Fundamental theory first tried to constructively implement the idea of ​​derivation of the classical concepts of space-time from the laws of microscopic physics. Eddington’s five- dimensional world (Uranoid) contains three spatial dimensions and two – time and consists entirely of charged particles (electrons and positrons). This, with great difficulty presents the results have been amazing for Eddington himself, because considered hypothetical system was completely out of real experience. However, relying on high-precision astronomical data in recent years, obtained by the probe Wilkinson (satellite WMAP), and Planck space telescopes HST, BTA (Big Telescope azimuth) et al., Eddington’s Fundamental theory can be extended to the real universe.  The experimental results of the Military Engineering Space Academy with the clock and magnetometer installed on the artificial earth satellites, clearly confirm the reality of heterogeneous polarized dipole space environment, which has electric and magnetic perception, analog superfluid ³He-B. [4,5]. The fundamental theory allows us to give a response to said Yu.S. Vladimirov complex problems of difficulty in solving the problem [1]. Here are the problems:

1.Yu.S. Vladimirov asks «Why describe the physics of the microscopic physics uses complex numbers, whereas the conventional geometry and classical physics are set out on the basis of the set of real numbers?»; Applying the theory of linear sets of measures, professor I.N, Taganov proved that if the state of the physical processes are always measured with the ultimate uncertainty (Heisenberg uncertainty relation between the coordinates and momentum of a particle and the time and energy), the moments of physical time can be represented by only  complex numbers [19] . In 1955, M.Bunge introduced the complex time into the theory of electron:

T = ( t + iτ)


t is the time of an electron live in an atom;

τ is the continuous cyclic time, equal to an electron spin period  τ = 10ˉ²¹ s.

Similarly, you can enter the description of the Earth’s rotation around the sun complex time      Te = (t + ίτ), where t- time of a complete revolution of the Earth around the center of gravity of the solar planetary system, and τ- turnover time of the Earth around its own axis.

Regarding the understanding of the dual nature of the time S.Hawking wrote: “There is such a need to understand what is imaginary time – just it is different from the time that we call reality.”

The geometric form complex physical time can serve as a helix with variable pitch and diameter in a pseudo-three-dimensional space. The concept of the spiral of time in physics microcosm eliminates the problem of the spreading of the wave packet representing the microparticles with finite masses and dimensions. The new interpretation of quantum mechanics is not a problem, «wave-particle duality» – with the free movement of individual microparticles in each moment of time the complex has a well-defined complex coordinates [19].

2. As a way geometrical properties of space and time associated with physical interactions? After all, even Kant linked the three-dimensional space with the law of decreasing strength is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. Visually, the three-dimensional space is represented and described by Euclidean geometry in Cartesian coordinates. Descartes imagined space as something absolutely unchangeable, like an empty box, inside of which occur physical processes. Kant’s idea to introduce space, based on the specific physical laws. He wrote: «The three-dimensionality possible on what substances act on each other in such a way that the force of action is inversely proportional to the square of the distance.». Obviously, the geometric representation of this law is a sphere. The observer, placed in the center of the sphere, the visual space will be presented three-dimensional. The relativity of space means that it depends on the attitude and the mechanical interaction of bodies among themselves. According to Kant, and three-dimensional Euclidean space, because the forces of interaction between material bodies (the law Cavendish) and electric charge (Coulomb’s law) are inversely proportional to the square of the distance. If the particles interact and charges is directly proportional to the law of F = k • x (Hooke’s law), the space would become Kant in straight lines radiating from the observer to infinity. This space is no longer would have the continuity, and was to be discrete.

The discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe, made on the basis of the results of astronomical observations carried out by a group of researchers in 2000-2010. using a space telescope «Hubble» (Habble Space Telescope -HST), caused a huge amount of theoretical research. The interpretation of the cosmological expansion of the universe in a spirit of understanding of the environment antigravitating (dark energy) with a constant density was the basis for the standard cosmological model ΛCDM (Λ- Cold Dark Matter). Cosmological antigravitation in ΛCDM model described by a linear force versus distance:

F = (c² / 3) ΛR,

where Λ – Einstein’s cosmological constant.

In the model of the space environment (analogue ³He-B), which allows to describe the physical nature and microscopic structure of dark energy, a cosmological constant Einstein (Λ) can characterize the elastic properties of the repulsion of dark energy, and the «universal law of anti-gravity», explains the expansion of the universe is the law of elasticity Hooke [3]. Obeying the Hooke’s law of the cosmological time is linear vector and discrete, the so-called «arrow of time» Eddington describing real processes of evolution of the universe. Thus, time two-dimensionally. The duality of the time noted Nobel Prize winner I.R. Prigozhin in his book «Time, chaos, quantum». He wrote:  «We need to go beyond the concept of time as a parameter describing the motion of individual systems. In harmonic oscillators (classical and quantum), the time is unambiguously connected to laws of motion, while in non-integrable systems it plays a dual role. If sustainable systems are associated with a notion of the deterministic symmetric time, then instable chaotic systems are associated with a notion of the probabilistic time.» [14]. So, we can talk about the two-dimensionality of time, similar to the three-dimensional space. On the one hand, this is a valid cosmological time associated with evolutionary changes in the quality system or the termination of its existence (the probabilistic outcome of the development of the system). On the other hand, it is alleged cyclical time associated with the stationary state of the system, its return to its initial state. The duality of time may be a theoretical basis for the introduction to the physics concepts of the fiber bundle, consisting of a base (the coordinate space) and layer (momentum space).

3. First of all it is a theoretical justification of space having fiber bundle

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